Wednesday, 8 May 2013

Moonen 124' Trideck "Northlander"

And my, what a pretty yacht she is. At first glance; Elegant. Clean and crisp. Inside, look for more unexpected creativity. She adds an ultra-modern exclamation mark to her “typical Moonen” lineage; joining an exclusive “club” which features outstanding, award-winning quality. Yet, so far has limited its production to only three or four excellent yachts per year. Since 1981, that includes some 75 yachts up to 124’ – cruisers, explorers, fast yachts and displacement yachts, in both steel and aluminum.

Designer Rene’ van der Velden, with Art-Line Interior Design’s Marilyn Bos-de Vaal and Frank Pieterse, contrived the new yacht’s highly individual, sometimes ultra-modern interior, resulting in a tailor-made expression which reverberates throughout. Featuring top-echelon comfort protocols in the Owner’s apartment, she presents four suite-caliber guest staterooms; three decks and complete, up-to-the-minute mechanical, control and navigation systems making Moonen's largest build-to-date... a first-class yachting statement!
Well regarded for compelling attention to seakeeping, Moonen builds into this new steel displacement hull with aluminum superstructure – the essential characteristics for maneuverability and stability - a low center of gravity. Complementing today’s materials with decades of Dutch yacht building experience, Moonen adds intimate attention to a ship's seaworthiness, resulting in a reputation for pocket-sized yachts that hold their own in superyacht seas. With an economical cruise of 9 knots and a storm skirting speed of 14 knots, Northlander is capable of seeking each point on a compass rose within 5,000 nautical miles. On the subject of seeking new waypoints, let's get fiscal... Merit AS of Istanbul, Turkey, recently acquired an 80% share of Moonen Yachts. The remaining 20 percent is owned by Emile Bilterijst, who continues to lead the company as Managing Partner. This move will undoubtedly lead to new horizons for the builder, as well as new working relationships. Welcome Salim!
However, more new realms and opportunities will soon appear. With its 2008 added facility in Groot-Ammers, the firm looks forward to building yachts up to 45 meters, or 150 feet and refits up to 50 meters. While the Northlander 124' is its latest innovation of “PocketSize Super-Yachts” – as Moonen affectionately refers to the line - their luxury displacement series first debuted in 2001 with the 72’ Lady Jalinka, followed by Moonen 84’, 96’, and 97’. This sparkling 124’ is the builder’s crowning glory, so far; Queen of the Fleet. Zooming in on Northlander's bow, several storage compartments outline the superstructure's foredeck. Centered is an inflatable Avon tender and Cramm davit concealed under the bonnet, with fender and line storage flanking. On the pulpit, a pair of VRC-8000 windlasses and VC-4000 / NCL-1500 capstans. Notice the bullocks, placed in-line with the intended direction of pull, reducing eyelet tension and line wear.
With the exception of the yacht's requisite teak soles, the only external wood to be found on the M-124 are traditional and nautically-correct, teak hand rails. Otherwise, the exterior remains maintenance-minimized. The full walk-around decks are lined with handrails at every point, including the louvers that wrap the owner's suite, forward on the main deck. These louvers add a degree of privacy without obstructing outward views, but mostly they add protection during trans-oceanic crossings.
Northlander's sleek design emerged from a preliminary sketch of a 120’, then developed into the 124’ by Stolk Marimecs Naval Architects, with Rene’ van der Velden Yacht Design. Her gracefully contrived “balance” now becomes Moonen's signature flagship, but viewed from atop, she has an even more distinguishing signature, an atrium-based staircase that emerges to the top deck, inviting fun in the sun. More on this to come...
In this picture, quietly ensconced to port and starboard on both upper decks, a series of 8-person liferafts (5 in all) are nestled into the roof overhangs which add an additional safety element; human UV protection as they cast a mix of sun & shade over each setting. Protecting the finish from the elements, in gleaming white; Awlgrip.
To take it from the top, as this picture illustrates, Moonen's 124’ zenith; her mast, flaunts two huge bulbs with antenna array which monitor radar, VHF, Inmarsat C and GPS systems. Under the large open atrium ceiling, her top sun-deck presents a five-pedestal, stainless column table fit to support Atlas. 20cm ceiling speakers pipe music in from a Crestron entertainment system, all controlled from LCD touch pads.
Just aft on her Sundeck, her welcome “private version Sumatra spa” awaits the splash of the day. Surrounded in sumptuous sunpads that double as stowage, the whirlpool is outlined in splash grating with individual handrails toward each beam. To keep the breeze at bay, the the lower half of the handrail stanchions are lined with tempered glass.
Forward, the circular staircase to the upper deck is covered, for all weather; yet, situated in a mirrored four-deck central atrium, its opening skylight column unfurls, to flood bright daylight into the yacht’s interior. Completely weatherproof, it's an ideal solution for access to the sundeck that would otherwise dilute the M-124's profile.
In the closed position, this circle of sun-shaded glass with sliding doors – much like an atrium – becomes a curious focal point. This room-sized enclosure certainly adds novelty and intrigue of this remarkable vessel; expect its cleverness to imitated by other designers, quickly.
Looking up from the base of the hydraulic column that raises the staircase cover, the silo - sorta speak - is dramatically unique, bordering on science fiction. This is Moonen’s pure, startling imagination at work. The use of mixed elements, ranging from brushed stainless, wood, copper mesh and checkered tiles keep this space silo grounded.
This perplexing view is compliments of the mirror lining the back wall of the staircase. It effectively adds volume to the area, but also reflects light to further illuminate the stairs. The complicated imagery reflects and mirrors its fascinating design many times over, a refreshing concept no matter how many trips we take up the staircase.
In the yacht's wheelhouse, a fascinating, creative approach to Helm design emerges, centered on the Captain’s chair; the central focal point that puts all vital control systems within fingertip reach. Commercially influenced - or maybe a study in StarTrek III - this unique layout is exquisitely finished in warm western cherry woods with contrasting white pillars that jettison aft, giving the appearance of structural support members being stretched during warp drive engagement. To escape hyper-space velocity, pantographic doors are located to each beam, as well as settees for asteroid observation or nebula charting.
Zooming in, six 19" Hatteland screens displaying 1280 x 1024 resolution span the helm with dedicated panels trimmed in leather and wood, somehow softening the sci-fi effect. A lone, free standing compass is centered above the inner displays, as if to remind the ship's captain, this isn't a space ship. A closer look at the pod reveals a small diameter wheel placed on a horizontal plane with throttles and gears a hand's move away. Also located in the right hand region of the pod is a trackball for accessing each display and plotting on the fly. To his left are thruster controls and various interfaces for navigation, communications, engine room monitoring, etc. Systems include; Seatell 4006 Sat-Com, a Simrad GB60 radar/plotter/fishfinder, one Simrad and one Raymarine radar, two Simrad GPS's, a true heading AIS, Navipilot 4000 Autopilot, Navigat-X Gryocompass and a Simrad Echosounder.
Directly behind the helm station on the bridge, the skylounge day head echoes the M-124’s fine modern design. Excellent finishes on rare woods and wall treatments, plus a mirror and fashionably designed wash basin make this a clever, facile touch of luxury. Yet to come: more departures into the ultra-modern.

Monday, 27 February 2012

sailboat yacht suit for you

So you’ve just learned to sail or maybe are tired of waiting for that invitation to saiLinkl on Puget Sound on your friend’s boat. It’s time to take the plunge and buy your own sailboat.

The type of sailboat you buy should reflect the type of sailing that you plan to do, and where you will be spending the majority of your time on the water. Here are some questions you should consider before investing in that new or used sailboat:

How will you spend your time on the sailboat?
The type of boat you want is greatly dependent on how you will spend the majority of time on it. Are you looking to spend a few hours on the lake after work? Take a 3-day vacation to Blake Island on Puget Sound? Or do you want to go on a 3-week excursion up into the San Juan Islands or Gulf Islands?

The sailboat you consider should match your intentions. If you don’t intend on going on long vacations or numerous weekend cruises, don’t go for a large sailboat equipped with all the amenities of home. You might enjoy a smaller sailboat designed for daysailing, and rather charter a larger boat for that dream cruise to Desolation Sound.

How much do you want to spend on the sailboat?
The price of sailboats vary greatly depending on size, age and manufacturer. You can spend as little as $4-5,000 or over $100,000. Even within a certain size range prices can vary based on the type of boat you are considering.

Don’t forget that the initial purchase of the boat is just the beginning. You need to remember to budget for moorage, maintenance, insurance, new equipment or sails, fuel and all the other costs that typically go into sailboat ownership.

How much boat do you want?
Will you be sailing by yourself or with your family? If you are planning on single-handed sailing (or if you have young children), you may want or need to look at a smaller sailboat. If you do opt for a larger boat, look for features that can simplify your sailing excursions, such as a roller-furling jib/genoa.

Where will you sail your boat?
If you are on a large body of water, or one which can experience rough seas, you are probably better off buying a sailboat 24+ feet in length with a fixed keel. Small lake sailing, protected bays and inlets are perfect for smaller daysailer sailboats with either a swing keel or centerboard.

If you intend to travel with your sailboat, you will want to get a sailboat that can be trailored by your vehicle and easily launched at your destination’s boat launch.

Do you want to cruise with other people?
Many people buy a sailboat to become part of the larger sailing community. The easiest way to start is to purchase a popular sailboat that has a local cruising fleet. As an example, Catalina sailboats have a very active local and national fleet and are a great beginner cruiser sailboat.

Do you want to race your boat?
Sailboat racing is a great team sport and perfect for honing your sailing skills. Local Yacht Clubs sponsor sailboat races, and you can participate in a PHRF-handicapped race, or in a one-design fleet. If you are looking primarily to race your boat, research the local one-design fleets in your area (The Seattle area has a very strong J-24 and Thunderbird racing fleet) when you are considering which type of sailboat to purchase.

Whatever type of sailboat you end up purchasing, be sure to do your research, spend some time looking around at your local sailboat brokers and take a couple boats out for a test sail. If you are a first-time sailor, remember to take your sailing lessons, get the right equipment, and most of all…. have a great time!


Sunday, 5 February 2012

beautiful island...wait what? luxury yacht

i tough it was a beautiful island for jetsetters, but actually it was a great luxury yacht. amazing!

the type of luxury yacht

After I explained the meaning of cruise ships, now let's find out how many jeniskah yacht in the world. But for those of you who have not had time to read about the notion that there is a cruise ship in the previous article please click here!

Well, if you already know the definition of cruise ships, so now turn to find out the types of yachts in the world. That characterize many types of cruises
into various categories. But I tried to give an overview in general terms. If there is a reasonable addition or reduction occurs because people's perception of the very diverse types of vessels. Sometimes there is a rank of size, but some are from the function. But whatever we think it's all right. The differences are what make this world beautiful. Do you agree?

Well, here's the types of yachts in the world:

A. Curuise Mega Ship
From the name is already reflected that the ship Mega Cruise Ship is the kind of large yachts and luxury. It's a big ship can accommodate 3000 passengers. Recreational facilities such as restaurants, bars and pubs, nightclubs and discos, shopping areas, theaters and Cinemas, galleries and museums, libraries, casinos, personal care areas with gyms and spas, swimming pools and other facilities are complete and luxurious is the priority of ship types Mega Cruise Ship is. Even so the development of science and technology in the field of cruise ships, ship capacity is now classified into types of Mega Cruise Ship passengers can reach 5000 in one go. Amazing is not it? That is the greatness of man with his brain.

2. Small Cruise Ship (Yacht)
Is a kind of medium-sized yacht. Capacity of this type of yacht is only a few hundred people. Why a little? Because Small Ship Cruise prefers berifat services closer to its passengers. Passengers who choose a Small Ship Cruise usually tend to want a private atmosphere with the luxury of always present in it. Package tours offered by the cruise ship even this type tend to be specific such as ecotourism, culture or history cruises, conventions at sea, sea sports, singles cruises, senior cruises, incentive cruises, etc. business. The goal is also different from the Mega Cruise Ship. Choose to place more difficult to reach by Mega Cruise Ship itself.

3. Luxury Cruise Ship
This cruise ship passengers and not a lot of great importance because they are selling boat is a luxury in every facility and accommodation in Luxury Cruise Ship is. Cruise ships of this type are usually in booking by guests who are the richest people in the world classes or State officials in uni arab emirates also the plains of Europe and America.

4. Ocean Cruise Ship
Cruise ships of this type are usually prepared with all the equipment to deal with obstacles in the ocean like a storm, high waves and other severe weather. These types of ships can sail up around the world because of the preparation that has matured from his own ship and sailor.

5. Expedition Cruise Ship
You ever watch discovery channel program? Researchers and reporters from the discovery channel typically use this type of cruise ship to sail the seas for their expedition that will be specially screened on TV. Well that's kind of ships which are classes of ships Expedition Cruise Ship.

Now you fainted, how many types of yachts that exist in this world! You can also choose one of the many types of cruise ships is to be a place to work. All of which certainly has its own pleasure you've never realized before.

luxury yacht charter

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Mediterranean luxury yacht charters:

A Mediterranean yacht charter makes an ultimate vacation if you love fine culture, finer boats and beautiful azure waterways. The Med’ has varied itineraries in countries such as France, Italy, Sardinia, Spain, Monaco, Greece, Croatia and Turkey. The Mediterranean also offers a large selection of sailing and motor luxury yachts in other charter areas include the Aegean Islands, Amalfi Coast, Antibes, Balearic Islands, Barcelona & Spain, Bormes, Cannes, Corsica, Costa Esmeralda, Croatia, Cyclades Islands, Elba, French Riviera, Ibiza, Iles d'hyeres, Ionian Islands, Italy, Malta, Naples & Capri, Nice, Palma, Portofino, Porto Cervo, Porto Vecchio, Procida, Sicily, Turkey, Valencia, and Venice.
Caribbean yacht charters:

Caribbean yacht charters are all about exotic natural islands, beautiful tropical beaches and of course luxury charter yachts. St Barts, St Martin, The Virgin Islands, Antigua draw some superb luxury yachts for a vacation. Also, Barbados, Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, BVI, Canouan, Grenada, Grenadines, Jost Van Dyke, Leeward Islands, Martinique, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St Maarten, St. Thomas, St. Vincent, Tortola, US Virgin Islands, Vibo, Virgin Gorda are worthy destinations.

history of luxury yacht part two

"Yacht" a boat with decks, sails and cabins, It draws very little water & is excellent for short voyages. One is accustomed to using them for promenades & short crossings."

Boating for pleasure is, of course, nearly as old as boating itself. As early as 3,000 BC, Egyptian pharaohs were buried alongside elegant and slender oared barges intended to carry them through the heavens in the afterlife, they were built in the same regal style as the ships in which they cruised the Nile. These ships were no small feat of workmanship, measuring up to 130 feet and carefully are fitted together without the use of nails. In addition, since wood was scarce and was imported from Lebanon, such vessels were most certainly a royal prerogative. This remained the case for centuries.

It wasn't until the late 1500's that water-borne recreation took on a more human scale and a less aristocratic mien. It should be no surprise that this transformation took place in that most maritime of countries. For centuries, the Netherlands had depended upon and cultivated its countless waterways as its primary means of transportation, both of goods and of people. The successful opening of trade with the Indies brought vast wealth to whole sectors of Dutch society, and it was only natural that this bounty expressed itself on the sea.

Even prior to the "great boom" of the early 1600's, many of the Netherlands' small, open or half-decked craft, such as the round-sterned kaag, were often used as pleasure craft. It was an easy and natural progression to deck them over and provide for a small cabin, usually aft, but occasionally in the middle of the boat. As Dutch town-dwellers grew more affluent, more and more of these crafts were being built exclusively for pleasure. By 1620 hundreds of yachts were plying Holland's canals and its inland sea some owned by the Dutch East India Company and its officers, but many more owned by shareholders and other indirect beneficiaries. As early as 1630, boisterous racing competitions were being staged, often pitting neighboring cities against each other in friendly rivalries. Waterborne parades and even mock-battles became a staple of Dutch entertainment culture; even their pleasure-yachts celebrated the country's naval prowess by carrying cannons.

Charles II was 16 years old when first transferred to an island off the coast of France for his and the Royal lineage's security. There he began sailing to pass the time, and a deep and lasting love of the sea was kindled in him. After a failed attempt to avenge his executed father and reclaim control of England in 1649, he was forced into exile, traveling in disguise to Brighton (then called Brighthelmstone), where he chartered the 31-foot collier Surprise to make the crossing to safety in France. He soon moved to Holland, where his delight in sailing was readily and constantly fulfilled.

Upon his return to England in 1660, the Dutch East India Company presented Charles II with a handsome gift: a 66-foot yacht, finely decorated, provided with 6 3-pound guns and leeboards in the Dutch style. The King was to name this fine vessel after his sister, Mary a fond if ironic gesture, since Mary herself hated sailing and was terribly prone to seasickness. The King commissioned several more yachts, as did his brother James, Duke of York, beginning a royal patronage of the sport that was to last down to modern times. Charles II even sought out the tiny Surprise and bought her, converting her into a yacht appropriately rechristened as the Royal Escape.

During the 17th century, yachting began to flourish across Europe. Vessels of all kinds were commissioned as yachts to the wealthy and powerful, from tiny open boats to small frigates. Yachts were instrumental in discovering new lands and defending vital waterways. They served both as pleasure craft and as working ships, carrying people and messages swiftly and comfortably from shore to shore. Moreover, to this day, people around the world enjoy this "sport of kings," both on small lakes and rivers and on the large open sea.

history of yacht

The design, construction and materials of masts, rigging and sails have changed greatly over the course of the 20th century. From solid wooden masts built from a single tree to carbon fibre sections aerodynamically tested, super light and super strong. For sails there have been developments from natural materials such as cotton, which had a tendency to rot and stretch when wet, to new materials such as North sails 3DL sails using Vectran, carbon fibre, Kevlar and exotic films and glues. This report will be looking at the history of these developments and the technological advances necessary for these developments.


Introduction:

The Rig is the powerhouse of a sailing boat. Through the development of new rig materials and technology efficiency and reliability of the rig can be increased. This leads to yachts becoming faster. In the second half of the 19th century yacht racing was borne as a sport. Initially events such as the America's cup were started, this type of racing lead to the development of measurement and handicap rules. Thus begun the development of racing boats to push the boundaries of these rules. Significant improvements in performance could be found by the development of better rigs. Since the beginning of this century there have been a number of developments in materials and manufacturing, from the use of cotton sails and wooden spars at the turn of the century to the Carbon rigs and cuben fibre sails found aboard the new breed of yachts.

Before investigating the developments in rig technology it is necessary to investigate what the objectives are for developing the technology are. The aims include:

  • Reliability
  • Weight (as light as possible)
  • Price
  • Controllability
  • Resistant to environmental damage
  • Efficiency

The aim of the designer and manufacturer is to find a compromise between all the aims above with the materials and technology available.

New technologies and materials are usually seen first in the development classes, such as the international 14's and international moths. These technologies tend to trickle down into other classes with time. In yachts new developments are usually first developed and tested for yachts competing in the top of the sport. The most expensive and radical developments are found in America's cup yachts. This has been a source of most new technological developments sine the cup first started in 1851. Technological developments are slow to become accepted in the one-design classes, the requirements for a one design class is for a equally matched yacht and also to keep the costs down of buying and maintaining the yachts is an important consideration in the choice of materials and construction of the rig.

Part 1: Mast Materials and Manufacturing.

Mast developments:

There have been 3 main developments in the materials used masts. The main developments happened in the following order: wooden, aluminium, and composite mast materials. Although at present all these materials are still used in yachts and dinghies but only carbon fibre is used in high performance racing machines.

Wooden masts:

Wood was the most common material used in masts in the beginning of the 20th century. It does have some major drawbacks:

  • It is not a light material, especially in comparison to modern composite masts.
  • Greatest strength is achieved by using a single length of wood.
  • Prone to rot if it is not treated correctly.

The problem of greatest strength coming from a single length of wood became important at the beginning of the century in Britain. During the industrial revolution vast areas of woodland were destroyed, for various reasons such as building of ships and for firewood. This meant that the wood required to make masts became harder and therefore more expensive to come by.

Wooden masts had been in use for many thousands of years and proved itself as a reliable means of carrying sail. Things changed in the 20th century as boats began to be built solely for speed and racing. The cost of labor and cost of materials compared to the final wooden mast is no longer economic.

Aluminium masts:

Aluminium masts in dinghies were 1st seen after the Second World War. They were tried in the development class dinghies such as the international moth and the international 14. There was a relatively cheap supply of aluminium standard foil sections from the aerospace industry, which were tried out in these development classes.

At present aluminium masts are the most common for most cruisers and a large number of racing classes. Aluminium was used in the 30's for large yachts, such as the J-class "Shamrock V". She used

The size of the mast that needs to be constructed will largely determine the manufacturing method employed. For simple dinghy masts and small cruisers a standard extruded mast section is commonly employed, these are made by extruding aluminium through a mould. The mast is then chopped to its desired length and the fittings are attached. This is the cheapest form of aluminium mast since it does not require the use of expensive machinery and moulds. The design and manufacturing methods used to make extruded aluminium masts has changed little since the 70's however it is still by far the most popular type of mast that is in use today.

For higher performance and larger masts the same system can be employed, Only that a triangle is cut out of the top of the mast ant the space is bent and welded together. The resulting shape has a tapered top enabling the mast to bend more.

The latest development in aluminium masts is the use of Alustartm. This is an aluminium alloy developed for the marine industry. With a 20% increase in the strength of the alloy over other marine grades the plate thickness used can be reduced, therefore reducing the weight of the mast.[1] It keeps its corrosion resistance, bend ability and weld ability of other aluminium alloys in its group. This alloy is available in plate form with which aluminium plate masts are constructed. These masts are said to be stronger and lighter than extruded aluminium masts, although as yet no comparisons of strength have been found.

Carbon fibre masts:

Carbon masts began to be used in the early 90's, initially in the America's cup and Admirals cup yachts. In the decade since their first use carbon fibre is still not as widely used as one might think.

Through the use of carbon fibre a mast can be manufactured which is lighter and stiffer than an aluminium mast. This can significantly improve the performance of the rig. There are 2 main manufacturing methods employed in the construction of a carbon mast. The first is to use a standard section mould to produce a uniform section throughout the length of the mast. This is the cheapest type of carbon mast as the moulds used to make the standard section can be used more than once. They can be built as "one-offs" for a particular yacht. This type is more expensive since a mould has to be constructed to the specifications of the mast, this mould can usually only be used once. The main problem with carbon is the additional cost of the materials and the increased labour involved. A typical carbon mast will be approximately 7 times the cost of an aluminium mast.

Through the use of modern computer technology, such as CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and FEA (Finite element analysis) the precise loads on the mast can be calculated. Therefore a carbon mast can be built with increased strength in the direction of the principle loads. For optimum sail shape the bend of the mast is very important, it flattens the sail, since a carbon mast can be manufactured with precisely controlled orientation of fibres it is possible to create a mast which has the correct bending characteristics. This is an important advance in technology, complement this with new sail technology and they form a superior aerodynamic shape that could ever be achieved with an aluminium mast and polyester sails. The use of CFD can also determine the flow around the mast and on the more powerful programs the interaction of the sails and the standing rigging can also be taken into account.

Carbon fibre is an extremely well suited material for the manufacture of masts. It offers high strength with low weight, complex shapes can be produced and they have also proven to be reliable. There have been problems with carbon masts recently. The development of carbon masts for IACC yachts have shown that when a carbon mast fails (usually due to under engineering the mast or failure of another rig component leading to the failure of the mast) splinters of carbon fibre are produced and can cause harm to the crew or the boat.

Comparison of mast material:

It is difficult to compare like for like in masts. This is because the strength on the mast is largely dependant on the second moment of area of the mast section. Since the 3 mast materials will use different section shapes it is hard to compare. The other main consideration of mast material is the amount of windage induced by the mast. This windage can be reduced through a combination of reducing the width of the mast and making it a more aerodynamic shape. This is easy to achieve with carbon as the strength of the mast section is easier to create with different second moments of are fore and aft and sideways. Greatest strength and stiffness is required in the side direction and less is required fore and aft. This means that for a wooden mast there is going to be a surplus amount of wood in the fore and aft direction, which in turn means increased weight.

Future mast technology:

Since the introduction of Carbon masts there has been little further work done on alternative materials. There is however continuous development in the design of the masts to get the most out of the material.

Further developments in masts could come from the use of new matrix materials and new fibres. Fibres such as PBO could be used to increase the properties of the mast. The properties of any composite material can be greatly improved through the use of better, more advanced manufacturing methods. The most obvious being the use of an autoclave, which consolidates the laminate much better, resulting in a stronger lighter laminate.

Un-stayed rigs and fixed wing rigs:



Un-stayed rigs have been around for many years, the most successful examples of these are the Laser I and the Topper dinghies, which were developed in the 70's. They have very simple easy to handle rigs. The benefit of a rig such as this is that there is reduced parasitic drag due to the lack of shrouds and stays.

The main company, which manufactures this type of rig commercially, is Aerorig. This type of rig is confined mostly to cruising yachts and is rarely found aboard a racing yacht. This is due to a number of reasons, the most obvious being the simplicity of the rig, which does not provide for a good enough test of sailing skill. This factor however does mean that it is well-suited rig for a cruising yacht. Fig 1 shows the largest un-stayed rig manufactured to date, the mast is 60m tall (197ft). The benefits for this vessel is that the rig is well balanced and can be handled by a single person.

The technological advances in materials and new understanding of how composite materials behave under load have been crucial in the developments of these rigs.

The first noticeable fixed wing rig is to be found on the water speed record boat Yellow Pages.